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general on this section

We support the approaches listed here except we would again caution against decision making based on downscaled models for cities, due to their uncertainty but to be used as a guide for potential scenarios. We would also strongly advocate for a linkage to be made between restoration of natural systems within the built environment or leading into the built environment and the effect this can have on reducing risk. An example would be restoring water systems and wetlands upstream to prevent flooding effects in cities; conservation agriculture upstream for urban or rural settlements can also reduce pollution and reduce effects on health within cities/ rural towns. Municipalities should support ecosystem restoration as part of their Integrated Development Plans and disaster risk reduction approaches.

Biodiversity can also be enhanced within cities which also assist in developing green areas where people can relax, connect with their environment and assist with wellbeing. Awareness can also be raised by supporting community involvement in maintenance of natural areas within settlements.

In rural areas adaptation strategies and approaches can also be implemented that can support livelihoods as well as assist people to adapt to climate change; assist in mitigation at times and support biodiversity/ecosystem services. Examples include: rainwater tanks, fuel efficient wood stoves and these should be made available as soon as possible to the most vulnerable, for example in the arid areas of the succulent karoo.

We would lastly support a section that again makes linkages between the biodiversity, human settlements, health and industry where collaboration is needed as well as areas where supporting restoration of water systems and conservation agriculture can assist with disaster management, assist with reducing health risk and risk to human settlements all assisting people to help reduce vulnerability and cope better with climate impacts.